sábado, 5 de setembro de 2015
quarta-feira, 2 de setembro de 2015
· Production and commercialization of guaco (Mikania laevigata Schultz Bip. ex Baker) in the south of Paraná State.
· Influence of phosphorus fertilization over the growth of the camapu (Physalis angulata L.)
· Study of antimicrobial and cytotoxic potential of Pouteria venosa species (Sapotaceae).
SANTOS, R.F.E.P; SILVA, I.S.M.; VERÍSSIMO, R.C.S.S.; LÚCIO, I.M.L.; CAMPESATTO, E.A.; CONSERVA, L.M.; BASTOS, M.L.A.
· Evaluation of antimicrobial activity of the Tradescantia pallida Munt plant (Taboquinha Roxa).
· Evaluation of extracts from Helianthus annuus, brizantha and Sorghum bicolor with allelopathic potential for use as a natural herbicide
· Comparison of the tannin doses between two species of thorn-santa (Maytenus ilicifolia Mart. and Maytenus aquifolium Mart. ex Reissek) grown in the medicinal garden of Bela Vista Biological Refuge - RBBV of Itaipu Binational - Foz do Iguacu, PR - Brazil.
· Gastro protective activity of the Pavonia alnifolia A.St.-Hil. extract.
EWALD, B.T.; LOYOLLA, C.M.; PEREIRA, A.C.H.; LENZ, D.; MEDEIROS, A.R.S; ANDRADE, T.U.; NOGUEIRA, B.V.; PEREIRA, T.M.C.; ENDRINGER, D.C.
· Medicinal plants of the Rio das Velhas watershed region: potential for production and use in public health.
· The use of medicinal plants to habitants from Quixada-Ceara
· Influence of Propolis on leukocyte and protein profiles of mice and closing time of excisional wounds clean and infected by Staphylococcus aureus.
· Effect of non-oily fraction of Ricinus communis on the bio distribution with Technetium-99m in mice
MOUSINHO, K.C.; MATOS-ROCHA, T.J.; PEREIRA, E.A.C.; CORREIA, M.B.L.; SIMEY, S.L.P.; SOUZA, I. A.; CARVALHO, A. A.; CATANHO, M.T.J. A.
· Evaluation of Phyllanthus sp extracts in face of Pathogen Causers of Urinary Treat Infections
· Contents of phenolics and flavonoids in green tea (Camellia sinensis) from samples of different brands available for sale in Salvador-Ba.
· Aerial biomass production, content and yield of crajiru leaf extract [Arrabidaea chica (Bonpl.) B. Verl.] as a function of organic fertilizer in Manaus, state of Amazonas, Brazil.
· Preliminary trials on female Wistar rats with hydroethanolic extract from "calunga" (Simaba ferruginea St. Hil.) in the gestational stages of implantation, organogenesis and fetal period: interference on offspring
· Yield of the coriander [Coriandrum sativum (L.)] fertilized with manure at different doses and incorporation times in the soil.
· Pharmacognostic evaluation and analysis of labels of the medicinal plants Boldo-do-Chile (Peumus boldus Molina) and Chamomile (Matricaria recutita L.), commercialized in Fortaleza, Ceará State, Brazil.
· Antioxidant activity of anthocyanins from quixabeira (Sideroxylon obtusifolium) fruits
· Medicinal plants in the control of gastrointestinal nematodes in goats: the potential of the plants which grow at the Coquimbo region, Chile.
· Molecular techniques for characterization and conservation of medicinal and aromatic plants: a review.
Publicação da Fiocruz, especializada em plantas medicinais, registra 50% de aumento no número de artigos submetidos no período
Por Portal de Periódicos Fiocruz
A Revista Fitos Eletrônica, publicação do Instituto de Tecnologia em Fármacos (Farmanguinhos/Fiocruz), está comemorando seu primeiro aniversário. Editada pelo Núcleo de Gestão em Biodiversidade e Saúde, a publicação difunde, desde o 26 de agosto de 2014, conhecimentos sobre o uso de plantas medicinais que gerem inovações tecnológicas em medicamentos.
Já em seu primeiro ano, o periódico migrou do formato impresso para o eletrônico. A editora executiva Rosane Abreu conta que o processo começou no segundo semestre de 2014. “Tivemos que ajustar a plataforma eletrônica, qualificar o corpo editorial (editores e equipe), acertar a periodicidade. Trabalhamos para contemplar as novas demandas da sociedade do conhecimento e nos alinharmos à Política de Acesso Aberto da Fiocruz”.
Segundo ela, a primeira publicação online ainda foi fruto do sistema híbrido de submissão de artigos, uns por e-mail, outros através do sistema eletrônico. “Ainda neste número, todos os manuscritos foram submetidos eletronicamente (no volume 9, n.1 e n.2 de 2015) e todas as atividades editoriais foram realizadas através do sistema on-line”, diz.
O crescimento dessa semente é motivo de comemoração: “Conseguimos ampliar a visibilidade da Fitos, trabalhando bastante nas ações de divulgação e nos integrando às demais revistas científicas da Fiocruz em seu Portal de Periódicos”, afirma Rosane.
Um retrato do primeiro ano da Fitos
A Revista Fitos Eletrônica é especializada em plantas medicinais e apresenta artigos científicos que possam contribuir para a pesquisa, o desenvolvimento e a inovação de medicamentos de origem vegetal, bem como para estudos e aprofundamentos de temas e disciplinas que abrangem este setor. É voltada às áreas de Química, Farmacologia, Etnofarmacologia, Botânica, Agroecologia e Inovação.
As plantas medicinais mais pesquisadas foram: cordia verbenácea (erva baleeira), cynara scolymus(alcachofra) e bauhinia forficata (pata de vaca).
A Fitos teve aumento de 50% no número de artigos submetidos - passando de 8 para 12 mansucritos.
O site da Fitos teve 14.540 acessos e a revista registra 45.148 visualizações.
Os 10 artigos mais lidos
1. Oportunidades para inovação no tratamento da leishmaniose usando o potencial das plantas e produtos naturais como fontes de novos fármacos (263 acessos)
2. Elaboração de uma cartilha direcionada aos profissionais da área da Saúde, contendo informações sobre interações medicamentosas envolvendo fitoterápicos e alopáticos (243 acessos)
3. Uma revisão bibliográfica sobre Araceae com foco nos gêneros Pistia, Philodendron e Montrichardia: aspectos botânicos, fitoquímicos e atividades biológicas (364 acessos)
4. Drogas e extratos vegetais utilizados em fitoterapia (294 acessos)
6. Desenvolvimento Tecnológico de Produtos Fitoterápicos (198 acessos)
7. Determinação da propriedade antioxidante e teores de minerais presentes nas folhas de Azadirachta Indica A. Juss (194 acessos)
8. Perfil de Utilização de Fitoterápicos nos Municípios de Volta Redonda e Barra Mansa/RJ (193 acessos)
10. Pesquisa e Desenvolvimento de Fitoterápicos: Relatos de Experiência em Indústria Farmacêutica Nacional(179 acessos)
Acessos por país
PAÍS ACESSOS PERCENTUAL
Brasil 10.969 75,44%
EUA 1.110 7,63%
Não identificado 705 4,85%
Inglaterra 296 2,04%
China 171 1,18%
Japão 117 0,80%
Índia 84 0,58%
França 73 0,50%
Portugal 72 0,50%
Rússia 69 0,47%
Mice receiving THC, the active ingredient in marijuana, had a delay in the rejection of an incompatible organ
Date: September 1, 2015
Source: Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Here's another discovery to bolster the case for medical marijuana: new research in mice suggests that THC, the active ingredient in marijuana, may delay the rejection of incompatible organs.
Here's another discovery to bolster the case for medical marijuana: New research in mice suggests that THC, the active ingredient in marijuana, may delay the rejection of incompatible organs. Although more research is necessary to determine if there are benefits to humans, this suggests that THC, or a derivative, might prove to be a useful antirejection therapy, particularly in situations where transplanted organs may not be a perfect match. These findings were published in the September 2015 issue of The Journal of Leukocyte Biology.
"We are excited to demonstrate for the first time that cannabinoid receptors play an important role in the prolongation of rejection of a foreign graft by suppressing immune response in the recipient, said Mitzi Nagarkatti, Ph.D., a researcher involved in the work from the University of South Carolina School of Medicine. "This opens up a new area of research that would lead to better approaches to prevent transplant rejection as well as to treat other inflammatory diseases."
To make this discovery, Nagarkatti and colleagues used two groups of mice that were genetically different, and transplanted skin from one group to the other. All of the mice received incompatible skin, but one group was treated with vehicle (placebo) and the other was treated with THC. The scientists observed that the rejection of the skin graft in mice that received THC was delayed when compared to the control group that only received a placebo.
Please note: Transplant patients should not use marijuana as a therapy without the consent of their physician and should only do so in compliance with any and all local, state and federal laws.
"More and more research is identifying potential beneficial effects of substances contained in marijuana, but a major challenge has been identifying the molecular pathways involved," said John Wherry, Ph.D., Deputy Editor of the Journal of Leukocyte Biology. "These new studies point to important roles for the cannabinoid receptors as targets that might be exploited using approaches that refine how we think about substances derived from marijuana."
The above post is reprinted from materials provided by Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology. Note: Materials may be edited for content and length.
J. M. Sido, P. S. Nagarkatti, M. Nagarkatti. 9-Tetrahydrocannabinol attenuates allogeneic host-versus-graft response and delays skin graft rejection through activation of cannabinoid receptor 1 and induction of myeloid-derived suppressor cells. Journal of Leukocyte Biology, 2015; 98 (3): 435 DOI: 10.1189/jlb.3A0115-030RR
Cite This Page:
Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology. "Can marijuanna help transplant patients? New research says maybe: Mice receiving THC, the active ingredient in marijuana, had a delay in the rejection of an incompatible organ." ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 1 September 2015. <www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2015/09/150901113535.htm>.
Study suggests that future development of novel treatments for alcoholic liver disease may focus on counteracting alcohol's effect on vitamin A levels in the liver
Date: September 1, 2015
Source: Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
With a name like 'Alcoholic Liver Disease,' you may not think about vitamin A as being part of the problem. That's exactly what scientists have shown, however, in a new research report.
With a name like "Alcoholic Liver Disease," you may not think about vitamin A as being part of the problem. That's exactly what scientists have shown, however, in a new research report appearing in the September 2015 issue of The FASEB Journal. In particular, they found that chronic alcohol consumption has a dramatic effect on the way the body handles vitamin A. Long-term drinking lowers vitamin A levels in the liver, which is the main site of alcohol breakdown and vitamin A storage, while raising vitamin A levels in many other tissues. This opens the doors for novel treatments of alcoholic liver disease that focus on counteracting alcohol's effect on vitamin A in the liver.
"We hope this study will lead to a broader understanding and appreciation of the fact that excessive consumption of alcohol has a negative effect on vitamin A function in the body," said Robin D. Clugston, Ph.D., a researcher involved in the work from the Department of Medicine, Division of Preventive Medicine and Nutrition at Columbia University Medical Center in New York, New York. "Ultimately, we hope that vitamin A will be seen as a broad target for alcohol in multiple tissues of the body and that our understanding of alcohol-induced disease will be linked together by its effects on vitamin A."
Clugston and colleagues conducted multiple experiments using several groups of mice including those who received alcohol-containing food and alcohol-free food. They analyzed the liver and other organs (i.e., kidney, spleen, heart, lung, white adipose, brown adipose and blood), from both groups of mice and measured tissue vitamin A levels. The alcohol-fed mice had distinct changes in how their body handled vitamin A. In general, vitamin A levels were lower in the liver and higher in other tissues. This strongly suggests that vitamin A in the liver is reduced by excessive alcohol consumption and that these findings are important in the development of alcoholic liver disease.
"This research not only give us new insights into how chronic alcoholism affects vitamin A in the liver," said Gerald Weissmann, M.D., Editor-in-Chief ofThe FASEB Journal, "but it also sheds light on how our body processes vitamin A overall. This is particularly important since some people get too much vitamin A through 'supplements,' while others still do not get enough because of poor access to proper nutrition."
The above post is reprinted from materials provided by Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology. Note: Materials may be edited for content and length.
R. D. Clugston, L.-S. Huang, W. S. Blaner. Chronic alcohol consumption has a biphasic effect on hepatic retinoid loss. The FASEB Journal, 2015; 29 (9): 3654 DOI: 10.1096/fj.14-266296
Cite This Page:
Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology. "Vitamin A implicated in development of alcoholic liver disease: Study suggests that future development of novel treatments for alcoholic liver disease may focus on counteracting alcohol's effect on vitamin A levels in the liver." ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 1 September 2015. <www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2015/09/150901140159.htm>.
Radis de setembro: a aprovação de medidas recentes que colocam sob ameaça o direito à saúde mostra que o Congresso Nacional é permeado pela disputa de interesses entre defensores da saúde pública e segmentos privados, dentre os quais estão planos, hospitais e indústrias farmacêuticas e de alimentos.
terça-feira, 1 de setembro de 2015
Fonte: Gabriella Bontempo Ascom/MDA - Segunda-feira, 24 de Agosto de 2015
É embaixo da rede elétrica do Jardim Imperador, bairro localizado na zona leste de São Paulo, que a agricultora Florisbela Azevedo Silva, 75 anos, e o marido Valdomiro Gonçalves, 92 anos, viram a vida ser transformada. O que antes era um terreno abandonado, hoje é sinônimo de agricultura sustentável e produção de alimentos saudáveis para toda a comunidade.
“Eu nunca pensei que tiraria renda daqui, plantava só um cercadinho para a gente mesmo”, conta Florisbela. Há mais de um ano, o espaço pequeno que era cultivado para a família cresceu. Por lá, a vizinhança encontra desde verduras, como alface, até plantas medicinais bem conhecidas pelos brasileiros, como alecrim, capim cidreira e arruda.
Toda a produção, no entanto, tem um diferencial: os alimentos são orgânicos – sem a presença de adubos e insumos químicos. O divisor das águas para a família foi o projeto hortas comunitárias da Organização Cidades Sem Fome. “A participação da organização mudou tudo. Eles nos ajudam muito e fez com que eu tivesse a oportunidade de fazer o que gosto. Eu adoro trabalhar com a terra, plantar”, afirma a agricultora.
No Distrito Federal, outra experiência aproxima a produção rural da cidade. Há um ano, a chácara Toca da Coruja, localizada no Núcleo Rural Lago Oeste, a 40 quilômetros do centro de Brasília, faz parte de um movimento internacional chamado Comunidade que Sustenta a Agricultura (CSA). A ideia é integrar os produtores com os consumidores finais, por meio da co-produção.
“Dividimos os custos totais com 27 famílias. As pessoas que participam se tornam parceiros, acompanhando todo o processo de produção. O movimento vai de encontro à necessidade de uma melhor alimentação e de apoio por parte dos produtores, promovendo relações mais solidárias”, explica a agricultora e coordenadora do projeto, Andrea Zimmermann, 37 anos.
Segundo o diretor do Departamento de Geração de Renda e Agregação de Valor (Degrav/MDA), Marcelo Piccin, a agricultura urbana e periurbana, como são conhecidas, à produção de alimentos dentro e no entorno das cidades tem grandes vantagens: diminui os custos de produção, aumenta a oferta de alimentos saudáveis, gera renda e emprego e promove a sustentabilidade ambiental.
“O tema da agricultura urbana e periurbana é uma reflexão sobre a importância de se produzir alimentos próximos às cidades. Há grandes vantagens ao estimular esse tipo de produção, entre elas, a qualidade do produto que chega aos consumidores. Por estarem mais próximos, os alimentos não percorrem grandes distâncias, estando mais facilmente disponíveis ao consumo. Assim, possivelmente, o custo de produção será mais barato e, os alimentos, mais acessíveis à população”, observa Piccin.
Para ele, o MDA reconhece a importância da agricultura urbana e periurbana, ao identificar os agricultores familiares independentemente da localidade. “Em 2014 fizemos uma alteração nos critérios da Declaração de Aptidão ao Pronaf (DAP), para que esses agricultores, localizados dentro das cidades ou no entorno delas, possam ter a documentação e, assim, o acesso às políticas públicas que fortalecem o campo”, reforça.
No último dia 4 de agosto, a Secretaria Nacional de Segurança Alimentar e Nutricional, do Ministério do Desenvolvimento Social e Combate à Fome (Sesan/MDS), publicou uma resolução que institui um Comitê Técnico na Câmara Interministerial de Segurança Alimentar (Caisan), para fomentar o debate de uma Política Nacional de Agricultura Urbana Periurbana. A coordenação do comitê será feita pelo Ministério do Desenvolvimento Agrário (MDA).
O grupo terá encontros periódicos e encerrará as atividades ao final do período de validade do Plano Nacional de Segurança Alimentar e Nutricional 2012/2015.
A Câmara Interministerial de Segurança Alimentar e Nutricional (CAISAN) é uma instância governamental responsável pela coordenação e pelo monitoramento intersetorial das políticas públicas, na esfera federal, relacionadas à segurança alimentar e nutricional, ao combate à fome, e à garantia do Direito Humano à Alimentação Adequada (DHAA).
Fonte: RedeNutri - Terça-feira, 01 de Setembro de 2015
Totalmente desenvolvido na modalidade de autoaprendizado à distância, o novo curso integra o conjunto de iniciativas de desenvolvimento de capacidades da RedeNutri e tem como objetivo contribuir para a divulgação do Guia Alimentar para a População Brasileira e para compreensão de seus objetivos e recomendações.
O curso, com carga horária de 30 horas, está organizado em 4 módulos:
- Módulo I: Princípios do Guia Alimentar para a População Brasileira
- Módulo II: Classificação dos alimentos - Como realizar a escolha dos alimentos
- Módulo III: O ato de comer e a comensalidade
- Módulo IV: O Guia Alimentar na prática - A compreensão e superação dos obstáculos
Além disso, o curso apresenta também materiais complementares, questões problematizadoras e Estudos de Caso.
Os interessados podem realizá-lo de acordo com sua disponibilidade de tempo e o participante que completar todas as atividades do curso e com um aproveitamento de 70% poderá imprimir uma declaração de participação.
O curso está disponível na plataforma ECO-RedeNutri para todos os usuários da RedeNutri. Se ainda não tem cadastro, faça agora mesmo, clicando aqui.
Além deste, todos os outros cursos são gratuitos e podem ser acessados a qualquer momento na plataforma ECO-RedeNutri. Acesse!
Confira este e outros cursos disponíveis na RedeNutri, clicando aqui.
Date: August 28, 2015
Source: Taylor & Francis
New research examines the experiences of California residents who have been prescribed medical marijuana and the stigma they experience from public opinion. The findings indicate that the stigma of using medical marijuana may contribute to the under-treatment of those who might benefit from medical marijuana.
Research recently published in Journal of Psychoactive Drugs (Routledge) examines the experiences of California residents who have been prescribed medical marijuana and the stigma they experience from public opinion. The findings indicate that the stigma of using medical marijuana may contribute to the under-treatment of those who might benefit from medical marijuana.
Medical marijuana -- a controversial topic in recent years -- is now legal in 23 US states, the District of Columbia, and has been legal in the state of California since 1996. It has been noted scientifically as a viable form of treatment for medical complications like migraines, depression, chemotherapy and radiation treatment effects, chronic pain and asthma.
Using interview research with 18 participants, a team of American researchers were able to better understand how patients handle this stigma and how it affects health care as well as day-to-day life. "There was obviously that kind of negative stigma of using marijuana that I'd be looked upon as kind of an addict or a drug user more than a patient," explained a participant. Almost every patient mentioned being labeled a stoner looking to take advantage of the law. Many patients felt uncomfortable discussing the matter with their primary health care providers because of embarrassment. A major norm among all of the patients is concealing their marijuana usage from family and close friends.
"It's sad, it really is," said one patient. "Most people seem to be misinformed, and this includes the lawmakers. They see it as black and white. Marijuana is bad. Drugs are bad. Yet, they have no problem drinking their scotch, smoking cigars. They have no idea how incredibly beneficial cannabis can be," said a participant.
"This study underscores the need for further research as well as updating the training and education of physicians and healthcare providers in order to expand the knowledge and skill base as it relates to medical marijuana treatment," wrote the researchers. "As it becomes a viable treatment option for more and more patients across the United States, studies like these will be instrumental in ensuring that medical marijuana meets its full therapeutic potential."
The above post is reprinted from materials provided by Taylor & Francis.Note: Materials may be edited for content and length.
Travis D. Satterlund, Juliet P. Lee, Roland S. Moore. Stigma among California’s Medical Marijuana Patients. Journal of Psychoactive Drugs, 2015; 47 (1): 10 DOI: 10.1080/02791072.2014.991858
Cite This Page:
Taylor & Francis. "Medicinal marijuana: Patients battle stigma and misunderstanding." ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 28 August 2015. <www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2015/08/150828113011.htm>.
Date: August 29, 2015
Source: European Society of Cardiology
Coffee drinking is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular events (mainly heart attacks) in young adults (18-45) with mild hypertension.The 12-year study in more than 1,200 patients found that heavy coffee drinkers had a four-fold increased risk while moderate drinkers tripled their risk.
Risk of hypertension development according to level of coffee drinking.
Credit: Image courtesy of European Society of Cardiology
Coffee drinking is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular events (mainly heart attacks) in young adults (18-45) with mild hypertension, according to research presented at ESC Congress today by Dr Lucio Mos, a cardiologist at Hospital of San Daniele del Friuli in Udine, Italy.1 The 12 year study in more than 1 200 patients found that heavy coffee drinkers had a four-fold increased risk while moderate drinkers tripled their risk. Future prediabetes attenuated the associations suggesting that the effect of coffee on cardiovascular events may be mediated by its long term influence on blood pressure and glucose metabolism.
"There is controversy surrounding the long term cardiovascular and metabolic effects of coffee consumption in patients with hypertension," said Dr Mos. "Our study was designed to evaluate whether coffee drinking had an effect on the risk of cardiovascular events, and if the association was mediated by effects on blood pressure and glucose metabolism."
The study included 1 201 non-diabetic patients aged 18 to 45 years from the prospective HARVEST2 study who had untreated stage 1 hypertension (systolic blood pressure between 140 and 159 mmHg and/or diastolic blood pressure between 90 and 99 mmHg). Coffee consumption was categorised by the number of caffeine-containing cups per day: non-drinkers (0), moderate (1-3) and heavy drinkers (4 or more). Among the participants, 26.3% were abstainers, 62.7% were moderate and 10.0% were heavy coffee drinkers. Coffee drinkers were older and had a higher body mass index than abstainers.
There was a linear relationship between coffee use and risk of hypertension needing treatment. The association reached statistical significance for heavy drinkers. As type 2 diabetes often develops in hypertensive patients at a later stage, the study examined the long term effect of coffee drinking on the risk of developing prediabetes. A linear relationship was found, with a 100% (30% to 210%) increased risk of prediabetes in the heavy coffee drinkers.
However, the risk of prediabetes related to coffee consumption differed according to the CYP1A2 genotype, which determines whether individuals are fast or slow caffeine metabolisers. The risk of prediabetes was increased significantly only in slow caffeine metabolisers, with a hazard ratio (HR) of 2.78 (95% confidence interval 1.32-5.88, p=0.0076) for heavy coffee drinkers.
"Drinking coffee increases the risk of prediabetes in young adults with hypertension who are slow caffeine metabolisers," said Dr Mos. "Slow caffeine metabolisers have longer exposure to the detrimental effects of caffeine on glucose metabolism. The risk is even greater if they are overweight or obese, and if they are heavy coffee drinkers. Thus, the effect of coffee on prediabetes depends on the amount of daily coffee intake and genetic background."
During the 12.5 year follow-up there were 60 cardiovascular events. Of these about 80% were heart attacks and the remainder included strokes, peripheral artery disease and kidney failure. In multivariable analyses including other lifestyle factors, age, sex, parental cardiovascular morbidity, body mass index, total blood cholesterol, 24 hour ambulatory blood pressure, 24 hour ambulatory heart rate and follow-up changes in body weight, both coffee categories were independent predictors of cardiovascular events with HRs of 4.3 (1.3-13.9) for heavy coffee drinkers and 2.9 (1.04-8.2) for moderate drinkers.
Inclusion of hypertension development in the analysis attenuated the strength of the association between coffee and cardiovascular events with HRs of 3.9 (1.2-12.5) for heavy and of 2.8 (0.99-7.8) for moderate drinkers. When future prediabetes was also incorporated, the relationship was of borderline significance for heavy coffee drinkers (HR, 3.2, 95%CI, 0.94-10.9) and was no longer significant for moderate drinkers (HR, 2.3, 95%CI, 0.8-6.5).
Dr Mos concluded: "Our study shows that coffee use is linearly associated with increased risk of cardiovascular events in young adults with mild hypertension. This relationship seems to be at least partially mediated by the long term effect of coffee on blood pressure and glucose metabolism. These patients should be aware that coffee consumption may increase their risk of developing more severe hypertension and diabetes in later life and should keep consumption to a minimum."
The above post is reprinted from materials provided by European Society of Cardiology. Note: Materials may be edited for content and length.
Cite This Page:
European Society of Cardiology. "Coffee linked with increased cardiovascular risk in young adults with mild hypertension." ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 29 August 2015. <www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2015/08/150829123701.htm>.
Date: August 30, 2015
Source: European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
A single dose of cocaine can interfere with the ability to recognize negative emotions such as anger and sadness, according to new research.
A single dose of cocaine can interfere with the ability to recognise negative emotions, according to new research presented at the ECNP conference in Amsterdam.
In a placebo-controlled within subject study, researchers from the Netherlands and Germany took 24 students (aged 19 to 27) with light to moderate cocaine use, and gave them either 300mg of oral cocaine, or a placebo.
After 1 to 2 hours, each participant was then subject to a series of biochemical tests, as well as the facial emotion recognition test to measure response to a series of basic emotions, such as fear, anger, disgust, sadness, and happiness.
They found that in comparison with placebo, a single dose of cocaine caused an increased heart rate, as well as increased levels of the stress hormone cortisol. In addition, the researchers found that the subjects who took cocaine found it more difficult to recognise negative emotions.
They also found that the subjects who showed a larger cortisol response after taking cocaine had a less marked impairment of negative emotions. When they were intoxicated with cocaine, their performance was 10% worse compared to their performance during placebo, in recognising sadness and anger'.
As lead researcher, Dr Kim Kuypers (Maastricht University, The Netherlands) said: 'This is the first study to look at the short-term effect of cocaine on emotions. It shows that a single dose of cocaine interferes with a person's ability to recognise negative emotions, such as anger and sadness. This might hinder the ability to interact in social situations, but it may also help explain why cocaine-users report higher levels of sociability when intoxicated -- simply because they can't recognise the negative emotions'.
Commenting for the ECNP, Dr Michael Bloomfield (University College, London) said: "There are many mental illnesses in which our brains' ability to recognise the emotions of others are impaired and this new study shows that cocaine may interfere with this process too. Since cocaine changes the level of the brain chemical dopamine, this new study may have implications for other mental illnesses such as depression and schizophrenia -- where dopamine may also be involved in how we recognise emotions. We know that cocaine is a powerful and addictive drug and an important question remains: does cocaine mess up this process so that when cocaine users are off the drug they feel like other people have more negative emotions?"
The above post is reprinted from materials provided by European College of Neuropsychopharmacology. Note: Materials may be edited for content and length.
Cite This Page:
European College of Neuropsychopharmacology. "A single cocaine dose lowers perceptions of sadness and anger." ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 30 August 2015. <www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2015/08/150830152605.htm>.
Date: August 31, 2015
Source: NYU Langone Medical Center
A bill to improve the nutritional value of fast food restaurant meals marketed to children could have a wide enough impact to reduce calories, fat, and sodium, according to a new study.
A bill to improve the nutritional value of fast food restaurant meals marketed to children -- like McDonald's Happy Meals -- could have a wide enough impact to reduce calories, fat, and sodium, according to a new study led by researchers at NYU Langone Medical Center.
The study, which will publish in the American Journal of Preventive Medicineonline on August 31, includes collaboration from NYU College of Global Public Health, NYU Wagner Graduate School of Public Service, and NYU Steinhardt School of Culture, Education, and Human Development.
The "Healthy Happy Meals" Bill, proposed by New York City Council member Benjamin J. Kallos, who represents the Upper East Side of Manhattan and Roosevelt Island, would require that fast food meals marketed to kids using toys or other promotional items include a serving of fruit, vegetables or whole grain. They must also be limited to 500 calories or less, with fewer than 35 percent of calories coming from fat, fewer than 10 percent coming from saturated fat, fewer than 10 percent from added sugars, and fewer than 600 milligrams of sodium. The bill is currently being considered by the City Council, and is similar to legislation recently enacted in California.
To identify whether the bill might make a public health impact on nutrition improvement and number of children reached, the researchers analyzed receipts collected in 2013 and 2014 from 358 adults, which included purchases for 422 children at multiple New York City and New Jersey locations of Burger King, McDonald's, and Wendy's, three fast food chains that market kids' meals.
Adults purchased on average 600 calories for each child, with 36 percent of those calories coming from fat, according to the findings. Over one-third of children ordered kids' meals, and 98 percent of kids' meals did not meet the nutritional criteria outlined in the proposed legislation.
If kids' meals meet the bill's criteria and children's orders do not shift, there would be a 9 percent drop in calories -- representing 54 fewer calories -- a 10 percent drop in sodium, and a 10 percent drop in percentage of calories from fat.
"While 54 calories at a given meal is a small reduction, small changes that affect a wide number of people can make a large impact," said Brian Elbel, PhD, lead author and associate professor in the Departments of Population Health at NYU Langone and at NYU Wagner. "Passing the bill could be a step in the right direction, though no single policy can singlehandedly eliminate childhood obesity."
"The policy's effectiveness will depend on whether the food industry attempts to neutralize it through marketing or other strategies," said Marie Bragg, PhD, co-author and assistant professor in the Department of Population Health at NYU Langone and at the NYU College of Global Public Health. "For example, the industry could remove children's meals altogether, forcing children to order the larger portions from the adult menu."
Dr. Bragg offered another approach: "Policymakers could consider broader restrictions on marketing, similar to legislation in Chile that banned any use of toy premiums in children's meals in 2012," she said.
The above post is reprinted from materials provided by NYU Langone Medical Center. Note: Materials may be edited for content and length.
Brian Elbel, Tod Mijanovich, Jonathan Cantor, Marie A. Bragg. New York City “Healthy Happy Meals” Bill. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 2015; DOI: 10.1016/j.amepre.2015.05.030
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NYU Langone Medical Center. "'Happy Meals' bill could improve healthfulness of fast food meals for kids in New York City." ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 31 August 2015. <www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2015/08/150831112615.htm>.
Date: August 31, 2015
Source: University at Buffalo
Women who are deficient in vitamin D and have a specific high-risk genotype are 6.7 times more likely to develop AMD than women with sufficient vitamin D status and no high risk genotype, scientists report.
Vitamin D has been studied extensively in relation to bone health as well as cancer. Now, a team led by a researcher at the University at Buffalo has discovered that vitamin D may play a significant role in eye health, specifically in the possible prevention of age-related macular degeneration, or AMD, among women who are more genetically prone to developing the sight-damaging disease.
In a paper published in JAMA Ophthalmology online, Amy Millen, associate professor of epidemiology and environmental health in UB's School of Public Health and Health Professions, and her team found that women who are deficient in vitamin D and have a specific high-risk genotype are 6.7 times more likely to develop AMD than women with sufficient vitamin D status and no high risk genotype.
"Most people have heard that you should eat carrots to help your vision. However, there appear to be many other ways that adequate nutrition can support eye health. Having adequate vitamin D status may be one of them," says Millen, PhD, the study's lead author. "This is not a study that can, alone, prove a causal association, but it does suggest that if you're at high genetic risk for AMD, having a sufficient vitamin D status might help reduce your risk."
"To our knowledge, this is the first study that's looked at the interaction between genetic risk and vitamin D status in the context of age-related eye disease," adds Millen.
Macular degeneration is characterized by the deterioration of the macula, a small part of the central retina where the eye's photoreceptors (rods and cones) are most highly concentrated. The leading cause of legal blindness, macular degeneration affects more than 10 million Americans -- more than cataracts and glaucoma combined -- according to the American Macular Degeneration Foundation. The disease affects a person's central vision, which is needed for common tasks such as reading and driving. The effect is similar to that of a rain drop on the center of a camera lens.
Researchers analyzed data compiled on 1,230 women ages 54 to 74 who participated in the Carotenoids in Age-related Eye Disease Study (CAREDS), which is an ancillary study of the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) Observational Study (OS). The WHI OS is a major National Institutes of Health-funded research program aimed at addressing the most common causes of death, disability and poor quality of life in postmenopausal women. UB is one of 40 WHI centers nationally. CAREDS was conducted among participants at three of the centers: University of Wisconsin (Madison), the University of Iowa (Iowa City) and the Kaiser Center for Health Research (Portland, Oregon).
Researchers were able to determine participants' vitamin D status by analyzing serum samples for a vitamin D biomarker, 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D], which provided a glimpse into vitamin D intake through all sources: diet, supplements and sunlight.
Human skin can synthesize vitamin D when exposed to ultraviolet light, Millen explains. However, for many people, 15 to 30 minutes a day with 10 percent of their skin exposed might be sufficient. In winter months, when there is a lower solar angle, sun exposure may not be not sufficient to maintain blood level for people who live north of a line from about Washington, D.C., to Los Angeles. At these times and locations, dietary intake may be needed. Dietary sources of vitamin D include fortified foods such as milk and foods that naturally contain vitamin D such as fatty fish like salmon and mackerel.
"Macular degeneration has been found to be strongly associated with genetic risk," Millen says. Among many genes linked to AMD, one of the strongest is a specific genetic variant (Y402H) in the complement factor H gene, called CFH for short. This gene codes for the CFH protein that is involved in the body's immune response to destroy bacteria and viruses.
Inflammation is believed to be involved in the development of macular degeneration.
"People who have early stage AMD develop drusen, lipid and protein deposits that build up in the eye. Your body sees this drusen as a foreign substance and attacks it, in part via the complement cascade response," explains Millen. "CFH is one of the proteins involved in this response. We see more AMD in people who have certain variants in the gene which encodes a form of this CFH protein that is associated with a more aggressive immune response."
Vitamin D shows promise for protecting against macular degeneration because of its anti-inflammatory and antiangiogenic properties; antiangiogenic refers to slowing the growth of new blood vessels, often seen in late stages of AMD.
"Our thinking was, if a person's vitamin D status is better, would it reduce the immune response to drusen? We wanted to understand if the association between vitamin D and AMD differed depending on a person's genetic risk for AMD," says Millen. "Our study suggests that being deficient for vitamin D may increase one's risk for AMD, and that this increased risk may be most profound in those with the highest genetic risk for this specific variant in the CFH protein."
The study results, however, shouldn't prompt people to run to the nearest grocery store to purchase vitamin D supplements.
"Our message is not that achieving really high levels of vitamin D are good for the eye, but that having deficient vitamin D levels may be unhealthy for your eyes," Millen says.
Although the odds of having AMD was higher in women who were deficient for vitamin D, with 25(OH)D levels below 12 ng/mL (30 nmol/L), increasing vitamin D levels beyond 12 ng/mL did not further lower the odds of AMD to any meaningful extent, she explains.
"This study supports a role for vitamin D in eye health. That's significant because when the Institute of Medicine's report on the dietary reference intakes for vitamin D and calcium were released in 2011, the committee could only make conclusions about D related to bone health," says Millen. "There wasn't enough evidence at that time to make any recommendation based on D status and other outcomes beyond bone health."
The above post is reprinted from materials provided by University at Buffalo. The original item was written by David J. Hill. Note: Materials may be edited for content and length.
Amy E. Millen, Kristin J. Meyers, Zhe Liu, Corinne D. Engelman, Robert B. Wallace, Erin S. LeBlanc, Lesley F. Tinker, Sudha K. Iyengar, Jennifer G. Robinson, Gloria E. Sarto, Julie A. Mares. Association Between Vitamin D Status and Age-Related Macular Degeneration by Genetic Risk. JAMA Ophthalmology, 2015; DOI:10.1001/jamaophthalmol.2015.2715
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University at Buffalo. "Vitamin D may play key role in preventing macular degeneration." ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 31 August 2015. <www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2015/08/150831112621.htm>.